The modern didactics considers only such methods of teaching and learning which help to initiate various kinds of pupils activity (intellectual, sensorimotor, emotional, verbal, and receptional) which train them in independent thinking and in efficient activity. One of the methods that fulfils those requirements is the method of problem teaching, often used in teaching Polish language and literature. ; Its foundations were laid by the American psychologist and education ist J. Dewey, who also defined the structural model of a problem lesson, discerning its five basic links. They are: thefacing of some difficulty of either a theoretical or practical nature by a pupil (i. e. the creation of a problem situation), the realization of what this difficulty consists of (the problem formulation), the search for its solution (the framing of hypotheses), the coming to conclusions, the checking of results, their arrangement and their usage for new situations. ; The problem teaching of Polish language in a secondary school may take many different forms during the lessons which are as follows: ; - the collective discussion supervised by the teacher himself, or by some pupil appointed by him; ; - the work in small groups according to three variants: l. all the groups solve the same problem, 2. each group works on some partial problem, being a part of the main problem, 3. the individual pupil's homework is checked in the classroom by the group; ; - the teacher's lecture; ; - the pupil's report. ; The very formulation of a subject matter, its stylistic version has a crucial meaning for the problem lesson.The subject matter for a problem lesson must be clearly and unequivocally defined and must not transgress the pupil's knowledge. Various kinds of pupil's activity as well as the satisfactory effects of didactic work cannot be obtained without a clear determination and understanding of the aims of the lesson.
|O problemowym nauczaniu literatury w szkole średniej = The Problem Teaching of Literature in a Secondary School||2018-06-07|
Cofalik, Jan (1911-2001)