Świadomość teoretycznoliteracka nauczycieli a efekty kierowania odbiorem dzieła literackiego = The Theoretical-Literary Consciousness of the Teacher and the Results in Supervising the Perception of a Literary Work
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At issue is the influence of the theoretical-literary consciousness of the teacher on the results in supervising the perception of a literary work, going back to the tradition of twenty years between two world-wars, when a new attitude of mind arose in a climate of constant resistance, what can be shown by the example of LITERARY PARTITIONING IN SCHOOL by Mr. Kazimierz Wóycicki and by the biting polemics with his suggestions. ; During the thirties the magazine ŻYCIE LITERACKIE (LITERARY LIFE) of those days undertakes the task to educate the teachers in literary theories and Mrs. Stefania Skwarczyńska puts theory of literature as a top condition for perception of a work and directs her essays and appeals for an instrumental utilization of this newscience to all teachers of Polish. After the war this attitude of mind got reactivated by Mr. Kazimierz Budzyk and Mr. Jan Trzynadlowski, who realize the absolute necessity of introducing elements of literary theory in Primary School into the procedure of direct relations to a literary work ; The outlined theoretical and postulative struggle got confronted with the school practice of today and with the observed theoretical literary consciousness of the teachers, which is one, but not the only chance of training pupils in a more analytic and more reflective relation to the literary text. The attempt of a diagnosis is based to a high degree on indirect studies, therefore not on the teacher himself, but on works created as a result from constant relations between the teacher and the pupil. ; The efficient theoretical-literary knowledge of the teacher was taken from exercise-books of more advanced Secondary-School-pupils, from written examinations for admittance to the philological faculty of the Jagiellonian University, from research on the perception of newer Polish prose and last not least from direct studies by Primary-School-teachers preparing for qualifying examinations and extra-murai studies of Polish philology. ; From the exercise-books it was possible to draw a conclusion about the treatment of a piece of literary work and about teaching literature. Most times the piece of work received a dichotomic treatment, that means at first a discernment of the plot, then of the form and afterwards of the expressive style and the historical reading. The character of the work had no influence whatsoever on the reading process, on the way of speaking about it and therefore as well as on the recording. ; Admittance examinations revealed insufficient knowledge of literary theory, but demonstrated as well favourable changes within the compass of the last years, especially in the field of analysis of poetry. ; However the greatest number of views revealed an inclination for "detailed" analysis and for a separate treatment of all aspects and therefore there often emerged a severe lack of synthetic conclusions, which did not allow to expose the reflective subject of the work. Many factors might do a change for the better, as publications with the address of the school, additional schooling of the teachers in the field o f theoretical-literary issues, deschematization of themes for Secondary-School-finals, and so on.