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In the above paper the author is preoccupied with the analysis of the relationships between the didactic theories and the practice of teaching and learning literature. The basis for these considerations is constituted by the assumption of independence (autonomy) of literature didactics as a science having its own subject and own methods of research, and using the advances not only in the literatury sciences but also in a great many other scientific disciplines. ; The relations between theory and practice are discussed in the two stages of the development of the literature didactics: pre-theoretical and theoretical. The following issues have been widely presented: dialectical relationships between cognition and teaching, relation of the didactic acts to the acts of scientific cognition, the ways of transfering from didactic theory to practice, the dynamics of the relations between theory and practice, as well as the problem of didactic creativity and stereotypes.