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The role of relaxation oscillator models in application fields such as modeling dynamic systems and image analysis is discussed. A short review of the Van der Pol, Wilson-Cowan and Terman-Wang relaxation oscillators is given. The key property of such nonlinear oscillators, i.e., the oscillator phase shift (called the Phase Response Curve) as a result of external pulse stimuli is indicated as a fundamental mechanism to achieve and sustain synchrony in networks of coupled oscillators. ; It is noted that networks of such oscillators resemble a variety of naturally occurring phenomena (e.g., in electrophysiology) and dynamics arising in engineering systems. Two types of oscillator networks exhibiting synchronous behaviors are discussed. ; The network of oscillators connected in series for modeling a cardiac conduction system is used to explain causes of important cardiac abnormal rhythms. Finally, it is shown that a 2D network of coupled oscillators is an effective tool for segmenting image textures in biomedical images.